Romans 2:12 — For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law.
Law, the first time it is used here is, specifically, the revealed law, not just a principle — everyone will be judged on the basis of what has been revealed to them.
The second law is external law, not conscience.
The final law refers to the Law of Sinai, the Old Testament law.
Perish = loss of well-being, not loss of being. There is not word in Scripture that speaks of total annihilation.
Sin brings forth death — period — apart from the law.
Those without law will be judged, just not on the basis of the law.
Those with the law will be judged on the basis of the law.