28 Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover.
29 Pilate then went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this Man?”
30 They answered and said to him, “If He were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you.”
31 Then Pilate said to them, “You take Him and judge Him according to your law.” Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,”
32 that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die.
John skips over Jesus’ appearance before Caiaphas.
they (v. 28, 30) — the entire Sanhedrin (Mark 15:1-2) and a large crowd (Luke 23:1). “They” told Pilate (Luke 23:2) that Christ was claiming to be king instead of Caesar.
early (v. 28) — between first light and sunrise
Praetorium (v. 28) — judgment hall, the governor’s palace. According to Josephus, this was Herod’s palace, used by the Roman governors of Judea when they were in Jerusalem. (They normally stayed in Caesarea.)
defiled (v. 28) —by entering the house of a Gentile (Numbers 9:6-11), which would prevent them from taking the passover. They wouldn’t defile themselves by entering Pilate’s house, but they rejected God’s Son and brought false witness against Him.
Roman law demanded a specific charge in a trial (v. 29).
They had already found Jesus guilty (v. 30). They didn’t bring Him to Pilate for a trial but for condemnation.
not lawful (v. 31) — Roman law forbade the Jews to execute (fulfillment of Genesis 49:10? Shiloh had come and the Jews no longer governed.)
saying of Jesus (v. 32) — that He would be delivered to the Gentiles (Mark 10:33-34; Matthew 20:19) and die on a cross (John 12:33). The Jews used stoning to execute (Acts 4:27-28).