John 2:1-12 — And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:
And both Jesus was called, and His disciples, to the marriage.
And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto Him, They have no wine.
Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? Mine hour is not yet come.
His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever He saith unto you, do it.
And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.
Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.
And He saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it.
When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,
And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now.
This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth His glory; and His disciples believed on Him.
After this He went down to Capernaum, He, and His mother, and His brethren, and His disciples: and they continued there not many days.
Nathanael was from Cana (John 21:2). Perhaps Jesus and the other disciples were visiting his home.
Third day — After two days will He revive us: in the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in His sight (Hosea 6:2). This is a prophecy of the second coming, but could also have a partial fulfillment in Christ’s first coming.
Jesus’ presence at the wedding showed His approval of marriage.
Wedding feasts could last as long as a week.
Some commentaries state that the running out of wine and the empty water pots symbolize the emptiness of Judaism at this time.
Woman (not Mother) — It was God speaking, not Mary’s son.
What have I to do with thee? — This was a gentle rebuke. Jesus was no longer subject to His parents. He was distancing Himself.
My time has not yet come — He was on His Father’s timetable.
Mary accepted the rebuke — “Whatever He saith … ”
Wine (as properly used) is a symbol of joy and gladness. This was a miracle of grace. It showed Jesus’ power of creation.
There’s no mention that Jesus did anything observable. The servants filled the pots and drew the water. The work was God’s but the means were human.
The water pots collectively held perhaps 180 gallons. They were normally used for the ceremonial cleansings of the Jews. They were filled to the brim. Nothing was added. 100% water was changed to 100% wine.
His glory (verse 11) — And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth (John 1:14).
Perhaps only Mary, the servants and the disciples knew what had happened. It furthered the disciples’ belief.
Capernaum — on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. It became Jesus’ base of operations, but even so the citizens didn’t believe. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell (Luke 10:11).
Jesus’ brothers — Mark 6:3
“Mine hour is not yet come” (2:4) became the most solemn watchword of His life, marking the stages by which He drew nigh to His death. Seven references are made in this Gospel to that awful “hour.” The first is in our present passage in John 2:4. The second is found in 7:30 — “Then they sought to take Him: but no man laid hands on Him, because His hour was not yet come.” The third time is found in 8:20 — “And no man laid hands on Him; for His hour was not yet come.” The fourth is in 12:23 — “And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified.” The fifth is in 12:27 — “Now is My soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save Me from this hour; but for this cause came I unto this hour.” The sixth is in 16:32 — “Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with Me.” The seventh is in 17:1 — “These words spake Jesus, and lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee.” This “hour” was the hour of His humiliation. It was the “hour” of His suffering. But why should Christ refer to this “hour” when Mary was seeking to dictate to Him? Ah, surely the answer is not far to seek. That awful “hour” to which He looked forward, was the time when He would be subject to man’s will, for then He would be delivered up into the hands of sinners. But until then, He was not to be ordered by man; instead, He was about His Father’s business, seeking only to do His will. — Exposition of the Gospel of John, by Arthur W. Pink, page 83-84.