11 Greet Herodion, my countryman. Greet those who are of the household of Narcissus who are in the Lord.
12 Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, who have labored in the Lord. Greet the beloved Persis, who labored much in the Lord.
13 Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren who are with them.
15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them.
16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. The churches of Christ greet you.
countryman — probably a fellow Jew
household — slaves
Narcissus — wicked, put to death three years earlier
Tryphaena and Tryphosa — probably sisters. Their names mean “those who live voluptuously.”
Persis — “labored” (past tense) perhaps elderly?
Rufus — maybe mentioned in Mark 15:21, whose father, Simon, carried the cross. Simon’s wife still lived.
Philologus and Julia — husband and wife. Nereus — their son?
kiss — ordinary greeting between those of the same sex
Greet one another — be as warmly loving within the church as Paul has been to the church.
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