Romans 9:4-5

who are Israelites, to whom pertain the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the service of God, and the promises;

of whom are the fathers and from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God. Amen.

Israelites — National, theocratic name, not racial name

Adoption (collective rather than individual) — When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt (Hosea 11:1). And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is My son, even My firstborn (Exodus 4:22).

Glory (manifestation of the presence of God) — And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud. And the sight of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel (Exodus 24:16-17).

Covenants (Abraham, Moses, David — mutual understanding between two parties who agree to discharge certain obligations. But in this verse, there is no joint obligation but indicates action by one party only.) — Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will shew thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed (Genesis 12:1-3).

Service (in tabernacle and temple) — Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary. For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the sanctuary. And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all; Which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant; And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercy seat; of which we cannot now speak particularly. Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God (Hebrews 9:1-6).

Promise — Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ (Galatians 3:16).

Whose — from whom — Christ does not belong to Israel

Flesh — referring to Christ’s humanity through Israel and the virgin birth

Who is over all, God blessed forever — referring to Christ’s divinity

Israel has a special place, as opposed to Gentiles — Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world (Ephesians 2:11-12).

Verse 5 is a clear statement of the humanity and deity of Jesus Christ. See Romans 1:3-4.

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