20 which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,
21 far above all principality and power and might and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come.
22 And He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church,
23 which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all.
which (v.20) — referring back to God’s power in v.19
worked (v.20) = to be at work, put forth power
from the dead (v.20) = out from among the dead
principality (v.21) = a first one, a leader — angels
power (v.21) = delegated authority — again, angels
might (v.21) = power
dominion (v.21) = lordshp
This list encompasses both earthly and heavenly authorities, including evil spirits.
and every name that is named (v.21) = and in a word, every name — whatever a name can be given to
this age (v.21) — the present state of things
that which is to come (v.21) — the state of things in the future
put … under (v.22) = to put in subjection under one — a military term
church (v.22) = a body of called out individuals — the body of Christ — all those who are saved
which (v.23) = which is of such a nature as
body (v.23) — the word soma, which passes readily from its literal meaning into the figurative sense of a society, a number of men constituting a social or ethical union (compare Ephesians 4:4), is frequently applied in the N.T. epistles to the Church … as the mystical body of Christ, the fellowship of believers regarded as an organic spiritual unity in a living relation to Christ, subject to Him, animated by Him, and having His power operating in it. The relation between Christ and the Church, therefore, is not an external relation, or one simply of Superior and inferior, Sovereign and subject, but one of life and incorporation. The Church is not merely an institution ruled by Him as President, a Kingdom in which He is the Supreme Authority, or a vast company of men in moral sympathy with Him, but a Society which is in vital connection with Him, having the source of its life in Him, sustained and directed by His power, the instrument also by which He works. — Wuest, pages 56-57