9 Furthermore, we have had human fathers who corrected us, and we paid them respect. Shall we not much more readily be in subjection to the Father of spirits and live?
10 For they indeed for a few days chastened us as seemed best to them, but He for our profit, that we may be partakers of His holiness.
11 Now no chastening seems to be joyful for the present, but painful; nevertheless, afterward it yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it.
Chastening by our human fathers is brief (comparitively) and sometimes done with wrong motives. God’s chastening has only their (the Jews) highest good in mind. The chastening referred to here is probably the Tribulation.
Father of spirits (v.9) — in contrast with “human fathers”
for a few days (v.10) — during youth. It ends with adulthood, whether the child still needs it or not.
as it seemed best to them (v.10) = opinion, supposition — subjective judgment
yields (v.11) = gives back, produces in return
peaceable (v.11) = bestows happiness and welfare