5 But the Jews who were not persuaded, becoming envious, took some of the evil men from the marketplace, and gathering a mob, set all the city in an uproar and attacked the house of Jason, and sought to bring them out to the people.
6 But when they did not find them, they dragged Jason and some brethren to the rulers of the city, crying out, “These who have turned the world upside down have come here too.
7 Jason has harbored them, and these are all acting contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying there is another king — Jesus.”
8 And they troubled the crowd and the rulers of the city when they heard these things.
9 So when they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go.
envious (v.5) — The Jews opposed the evangelization of the Gentiles. Paul mentions this very persecution in 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16: For you, brethren, became imitators of the churches of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus. For you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, just as they did from the Judeans, who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and have persecuted us; and they do not please God and are contrary to all men, forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved, so as always to fill up the measure of their sins; but wrath has come upon them to the uttermost.
evil men (v.5) = market-men — men who lounged around the agora looking for trouble.
house of Jason (v.5) — Where the missionaries had their lodging. They were absent when the mob arrived there. “Jason” is the name of a Christian at Corinth (Romans 16:21), and many identify him with this man. He was most likely a Jew by birth, and Josephus tells us of a Hebrew called Joshua who changed his name to the more Gentile form of Jason. — Walker, page 366.
If this is the same Jason as the one in Romans 16:21, he was Paul’s relative.
to the people (v.5) — either expecting mob violence to get rid of the men or for a trial before a public gathering
rulers of the city (v.6) — Greek, “politarches.” This was the title given to the supreme board of magistrates at Thessalonica, the heads of the democracy, as is proved by a stone inscription from a Roman arch there, now in the British Museum. The use of it is a remarkable instance of Luke’s extreme accuracy, since it is not found in any classical author. — Walker, pages 366-367.
king (v.7) — The word “king” in Greek would be “emperor” in Latin.
taken security (v.9) — That is, security (by money or sureties) for their good behavior, so as to prevent further disturbance in the city. The security may have taken the form of an undertaking, on the part of Jason and his friends, that Paul should not return to Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 2:17-18). — Walker, page 368.