11 For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are all of one, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren,
12 saying: “I will declare Your name to My brethren; in the midst of the assembly I will sing praise to You.”
13 And again: “I will put My trust in Him.” And again: “Here am I and the children whom God has given Me.”
14 Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil,
15 and release those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.
He who sanctifies (v.11) — Jesus Christ
all of one (v.11) = out of one — one source, God — the Lord and saints have one Father, so the Lord calls the saints brothers. Not that we are lifted to His level, but that He came down to ours in suffering and dependence on God.
Before the cross, Jesus never referred to humans as brothers. It is on the basis of His death and resurrection that we are His brothers.
He is not ashamed (v.11) — an act of condescension on the Lord’s part
The quote in verse 12 is from Psalm 22:22. I (the Son) will declare Thy (the Father’s) name.
The writer has just stated the fact that the Lord Jesus is not ashamed to call believers brethren. He quotes the words, “I will declare thy Name unto my brethren” (Psalm 22:22), uttered on the Cross by the Lord Himself. While the Psalm has its background in David’s own experience, yet the final and full application of its truth, is to the Son of God. In verses 19-21, He prays to be raised out from among the dead. In verses 22-31, He gives thanks for answered prayer even before His prayer is actually answered. In view of the fact that God will raise Him from the dead, He will declare His Name to His brethren. The writer to the Hebrews quotes this statement, not for its contextual value, but only to give scriptural verification to his statement in verse 11. — Hebrews in the Greek New Testament, by Kenneth W. Wuest, pages 61-62.
declare (v.12) = exhibit, make known
The quote in verse 13 is from Isaiah 8:17-18.
The writer now quotes Isaiah 8:17-18 (LXX) to show the close unity which exists between the Lord Jesus and those whom he calls His brethren. The context of the quotation from Isaiah concerns the prophets invective against trusting in any help but God’s during the Syro-Israelitish war under Ahaz. Isaiah declares his own trust in God, and that his children have been appointed as living symbols of the divine will. The meanings of the names of the prophet’s children are “a remnant shall return,” and “haste-spoil-hurry, prey.” These names will teach Israel that Assyria will spoil Damascus and Samaria, and that in the midst of a foreign invasion, Bod will still be with Judah. Both the prophet and the children are omens of the nation’s future. The children were babes at the time. Thus, the unity between every father and his children. This unity the writer to the Hebrews uses as an illustration of the close unity between the Lord Jesus and believers, whom He calls brethren. — Wuest, page 62.
partaken (v.14) = to have a share in common with another — in this case, flesh and blood
flesh and blood (v.14) — speaks of the frailty, dependency and mortality of man
likewise (v.14) = in like manner, lit. “alongside and nearby”
shared (v.14) = to hold with — He took hold of something, humanity, with which He had nothing in common by nature. Christ became fully human, but it was not the humanity of fallen men. Death had no power over Him. He submitted to it voluntarily.
The Lord became flesh to die. He died, and rose again, to break the power of Satan who has the power of death. Satan had sovereignty of which death is the realm.
destroy (v.14) = render inactive, void of power
destroy (v.14) and release (v.15) — Christ’s two purposes in death.