8 But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.
9 You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions.”
O God (v.8) — The Father confirms the deity of the Son.
scepter (v.8) — a symbol of royalty and authority
righteousness (v.8) — straightness, evenness, rectitude — as is the kingdom it represents (Jeremiah 23:5; Psalm 89:14)
You have (v.9) — past tense, referring to His humiliation on earth
righteousness (v.9) — conforms to the standard of god in His holy character
lawlessness (v.9) — anything contrary to the law and will of God
While here on earth the Mediator owned that God was His God. He lived by His Word, He was subject to His will, He was entirely dependent on Him. “I will put My trust in Him” was His avowal (Hebrews 2:13); yea, did He not declare, “I was cast upon Thee from the womb: Thou art My God from My mother’s belly” (Psalm 22:10(! Many similar utterances of His are recorded in the Psalms. On the cross He owned His subjection, crying “My God, why has Thou forsaken Me?” Even after His resurrection we hear Him saying, “I ascend unto My Father and to your Father; and My God, and your God” (John 20:17). So now, though seated at the right hand of the Majesty on high, He is there making intercession. So when He returns to this earth in glory, He will “ask” for the inheritance (Psalm 2:8). How this brings out the truth of His humanity, real Man, though true God. Mysterious, wondrous, blessed Person; upholding all things by the Word of His own power, yet in the place of intercession; Himself the “Mighty God” (Isaiah 9:6), yet owning God as His God! — An Exposition of Hebrews, by Arthur W. Pink, page 40-41.
oil (v.9) — Kings are anointed with oil (1 Samuel 10:1; 16:13; Psalm 2:2)
oil of gladness (v.9) = perfumed oil — a symbol of the Spirit, who gives joy (gladness).
companions (v.9) — co-participants — Some think this refers to believers (see 3:14), some think it refers to angels and some think it refers to those who have occupied David’s throne. Christ’s anointing is superior to theirs. The quote is from Psalm 45:6-7.