29 But Peter and the other apostles answered and said: “We ought to obey God rather than men.
30 The God of our fathers raised up Jesus whom you murdered by hanging on a tree.
31 Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.
32 And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit whom God has given to those who obey Him.”
obey (v.29) = specifically “obey one in authority” — the apostles weren’t disputing the Sanhedrin’s right to rule, they were just obeying a higher authority
God of our fathers (v.30) — the apostles and the rulers were Jews
raised up Jesus (v.30) — Peter again mentions the resurrection, the prime issue for the Sadducees who didn’t believe in resurrection and who wouldn’t mention Jesus’ name
murdered (v.30) = murdered with one’s own hands
The high priest had just said (v.28) that the apostles were trying to pin Christ’s murder on the Sanhedrin and here (v.30), Peter does exactly that.
hanging on a tree (v.30) — a reference to Deuteronomy 21:22-23: If a man has committed a sin deserving of death, and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, his body shall not remain overnight on the tree, but you shall surely bury him that day, so that you do not defile the land which the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance; for he who is hanged is accursed of God.
Paul refers to this same passage in Galatians 3:13: Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”).
The rulers had no only murdered Jesus, but done so in a way which was associated with guilt and shame.
Him (v.31) — emphatic — the one you murdered and shamed, God has exalted (see 2:33)
Prince (v.31) — includes the sense of ruling and of originating (salvation)
repentance to Israel (v.31) — the apostles message was still directed only to Jews
forgiveness of sins (v.31) = letting go, discharge from obligation — specifically, the release of a sinner from guilt and consequences of sin
these things (v.32) = these sayings — the facts Peter had just stated
Holy Spirit (v.32) — He is also witness to the truth of what Peter had been saying
obey (v.32) — as in v.29. Obedience (apart from the obedience of faith) is not a prerequisite for receiving the Spirit under grace as it was under the Kingdom.
Peter accuses the rulers of murdering the Messiah, but then offers forgiveness.