7 But what things were gain to me, these I have counted loss for Christ.
8 Yet indeed I also count all things loss for the excellence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as rubbish, that I may gain Christ
9 and be found in Him, not having my own righteousness, which is from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith.
things (v.7) = what sort of things
gain (v.7) — plural, “gains” — like a miser counting his money
loss (v.7) — singular, “damage” — his assets became liabilities
Paul’s righteousness under the law (verses 4-6), he counted loss (past tense with continuing results). He counts (present tense) all things loss except the knowledge of Christ.
excellence (v.8) = the surpassing thing
knowledge (v.8) — through intimate fellowship and close association — knowledge that affects the heart, not just mental knowledge
suffered the loss (v.8) — Paul counted everything as a liability — lit. “forfeited”
rubbish (dung/refuse) (v.8) — lit. (plural) bits of refuse, as the leavings of a feast thrown to the dogs
gain (v.8) — same word used in verse 7
gain Christ (v.8) — not salvation but the acquisition of Christ’s perfections
be found (v.9) — not searching, but a legal term — an experience that bears testimony — “turn out to actually be”
from the law (v.9) — out of, as a source
in Christ (v.9) — by means of
from God (v.9) — out of, as a source
by faith (v.9) — by means of